Sustainable Oil Palm Farming / Identifying noxious weeds

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Download: Module 3: Plantation Maintenance

Table 2: Common noxious weeds

Scientific name Common name Properties Found in Control
Woody weeds and shrubs:
Melastoma malabathricum
Straights rhododendron Fast-growing flowering shrub, unpalatable for animals, dominant on P-deficient soils All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Clidemia hirta
Soapbush Fast-growing flowering shrub, dominant on poor soils All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Mimosa pudica
Mimosa Fast-growing flowering shrub, unpalatable, thorny All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Lantana camara
Sage Fast-growing flowering shrub, toxic to livestock All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Chromolaena odorata
Siam weed Fast-growing flowering shrub, toxic to livestock, allelopathic All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Dicranopteris linearis
Climbing fern, shade-intolerant, unpalatable  Immature and young plantations
Stenochlaena palustris
Midin / kalakai Climbing fern, thorny, unpalatable Glyphosate application
Nephrolepis spp.
Slow-growing shade-tolerant fern Soft weed Slashing at knee height
Herbs and creeping vines:
Mikania spp.
Bitter vine Fast-growing shade-intolerant perennial creeping herb; allelopathic; dominant on poorly drained and nutrient deficient soils; very palatable Noxious in stands < 5 years after planting. Beneficial as livestock feed. Grazing; mowing; uprooting; glyphosate application
Asystasia gangetica
Chinese violet Shade-tolerant perennial herbaceous mat-forming creeper; stems up to 1 m tall; growing very vigorously with high nutrient demand; edible; very palatable and rich in crude protein Noxious if too dominant. Beneficial as livestock feed.
Imperata cylindrica
Speargrass, alang-alang Medium shade-tolerant grass with sharp edges to blades; dominant on poor and acid soils; young shoots palatable Noxious during establishment and immature phase; unwanted in mature stands Spraying or wiping with glyphosate
Ischaemum muticum;

Paspalum conjugatum

Shade-tolerant perennial creeping grasses with shoots of maximum 60 cm height; competitive with oil palm; palatable; used as forage species Soft grasses Grazing, slashing at knee height


The material from Identifying noxious weeds is sourced from Smallholder Oil Palm Handbook and put together by Lotte Suzanne Woittiez (Wageningen Universit) and Haryono Sadikin, Sri Turhina, Hidayat Dani, Tri Purba Dukan, and Hans Smit (SNV) in August 2016. See Module 3: Plantation Maintenance for more information.

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