India Mark 2 and 3
The India Mark II and III pumps are considered to be medium pumps, accessing water at a maximum of 50m and 30m, respectively. However, the India Mark II Extra Deep pump can go up to 80 meters, so is considered to be a deep pump. They are all listed here, as they have similar design and maintenance needs.
India Mark ll pump
The India Mark II Pump is a robust conventional lever action handpump and is subject to Indian Standard IS 9301. It is designed for heavy-duty use, serving communities of 300 persons. The maximum recommended lift is 50 m. The India Mark II is a public domain pump defined by Indian Standards and RWSN specifications. This pump has a pump head, pump stand and a handle of galvanised steel. This pump is not corrosion resistant and should not be used in areas with aggressive water ( pH value < 6.5).
It requires special skills for installation as well as for the maintenance, therefore it is not considered to be a VLOM pump. The pump body parts are Hot-Dip Galvanized and as such are extremely durable over the years.
The India Mark 2 Pump is also available in the following versions:
- Force & Lift India Mark 2
- With a choice of stands like Telescopic, 3 legged, Square pedestal, Vergnet type stand, etc.
- Extra Deepwell India Mark 2
- Ghana Modified India Mark 2.
For places where the water is very corrosive, the following components are available:
- Stainless Steel Connecting Rods
- Stainless Steel Riser Pipes
- Stainless Steel Cylinder Assembly with all Stainless Steel cylinder components
- PVC Riser Pipes
India Mark ll pump, Extra Deep
The India Mark II Extra Deep well Pump is a conventional lever action handpump and is subject to Indian Standard IS 15500 or to the RWSN Handpump Specification, Rev. 2-2007. The India Mark II Extra Deep well pump is designed for lifting water from extra deep water sources and is therefore strongly built. The maximal lift recommended is 80 m. Pump head, handle, water tank, pump stand and pump rods are made of galvanised steel, rising main of galvanised GI pipe, pump cylinder cast iron / brass, plunger and foot valve of brass. This pump is not corrosion resistant and should not be used in areas with aggressive water (pH value < 6.5).
India Mark lll pump
The India Mark III Pump is a robust conventional lever action handpump for shallow to medium deep wells. It is designed for heavy-duty use, serving communities of 300 persons. The maximum recommended lift is 30 m. Besides the “Standard 63.5 mm” configuration, there exists a version with Ø50 mm cylinder size for lifts up to 50 m. Pump head, handle, water tank, pump stand and pump rods are made of galvanized steel, rising main of galvanized GI pipe, pump cylinder cast iron / brass, plunger and foot valve of brass. This pump is not corrosion resistant and should not be used in aggressive water (pH value < 6.5).
The India Mark III has similar configurations as the India Mark II, only the “down-hole components” were changed in order to improve the village level maintenance. The most important improvement is the “open top cylinder”, which makes it possible to remove the plunger and also the foot valve without lifting the cylinder and the entire rising main (Ø 65 GI pipe). Cylinders are available in Ø50 mm and Ø62.5 mm.
The India Mark III Pump is a public domain pump defined by Indian Standards and RWSN specifications. This pump requires special skills for installation and has good potential for community based maintenance.
India Mark ll distribution: Very popular in Africa and India.
India Mark ll, Extra Deep distribution: India and in Africa.
India Mark lll distribution: A few thousand in India.
Construction, operations and maintenance
India Mark ll
The Mark II is a closed-cylinder pump. The down hole components exist of a brass lined cast iron cylinder with a footvalve and a plunger of brass. The plunger has a double nitrile rubber cup seal, the rising main is a Ø32 mm GI pipe and the pump rods are of galvanised steel with threaded connectors. The top and bottom of the piston cylinder are “capped” with threaded reducers. The diameter of the pump cylinder is larger than the diameter of the riser main to which it is attached.
Maintenance on any part of the pump cylinder requires that the riser main and the pump rod be removed from the ground.The pump rod is galvanized steel and sections are threaded together. The pump cylinder is threaded onto the last section of riser main and is removed in its entirety as the last component to come out of the ground. The pump cylinder can then be unscrewed from the riser main. The top and bottom caps can be unscrewed from the cylinder body to gain access to the foot valve, the piston valve, the piston seals and anything else inside the cylinder body.
India Mark ll pump, Extra Deep
The down-hole components exist of a brass lined cast iron cylinder and the brass plunger has a triple cup seal of Nitrile rubber. The rising main is of Ø 32 mm (1 ¼”) GI pipe and the pumprods are of galvanised steel with M12 connectors.
The reinforced “above ground components” have a potential for local manufacturing, but all other parts require a high degree of manufacturing quality that is presently not available in most of the African countries. Imported components however require a tight quality control in order to improve the lifetime of certain pump components considerably (wearing parts).
The installation of the India Mark II Extra Deep well pump need area mechanics that have attended special training and are well equipped with lifting tackle and comprehensive installation tools.
For maintaining this pump, special skills & tools are needed that exceeds the ability of a village caretaker. However, specifically trained area mechanics are able to maintain this pump.
India Mark lll pump
All “above ground components” have a potential for local manufacturing, the other parts need a high degree of quality control to ensure a reliable operation. The cost of the tooling requirement is substantial and therefore the number of manufacturers will be limited.
The installation of the India Mark III Pump needs well-trained area mechanics with lifting tackle and comprehensive tool kit. Cylinder settings of more than 20 m are very heavy to handle.
This pump has an improved "Community Management Potential” compared to the India Mark II, because the “open top cylinder” makes simpler maintenance possible with less tools involved.
- Do it yourself India Mark ll maintenance: IDRC India Mark II Manual. International Development Research Centre (IDRC).
- Wikipedia article on the India Mark II pump.
- India Mark II Pump Redesign 2007-2012. RWSN.
- India Mark II, Extra Deep-well Pump. RWSN.
- India Mark ll Handpump. S.K. Industries
- Water Hand Pumps Like the India Mark II Have Been Around For Years and Are Used Worldwide. CleanWaterforLaymen.com