Application and Management


For each of the technologies presented in the sanitation portal, an indication is given for the scale on which the technology can be used. Three spatial levels are defined:

  • Household implies that the technology is appropriate for one or several households
  • Neighbourhood implies that the technology is appropriate for several up to several hundred households
  • City implies that the technology is appropriate at the city-wide level (either one unit for the whole city, or many units for each part of the city or household)

X's are used to indicate how appropriate each level is for the given technology:

  • 'XX' means suitable,
  • 'X' means less suitable
  • no X means not suitable.

The Application Level indication is only meant as a rough guide to be used in the preliminary planning stage.

The technologies within the Functional Group ‘User Interface’ do not include an Application Level since they can only service a limited number of people.


In addition to the Application level, an indication is given of the appropriate Management Level for each technology. The Management Level describes the organizational style that is best used for the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the given technology:

  • Household implies that the household, e.g. the family, is responsible for all O&M
  • Shared implies that a group of users (e.g. school, market vendors, community-based organization) assumes the Operation and Maintenance themselves either by ensuring that a person or committee is responsible on behalf of all the users. Shared facilities are defined by the fact that the community of users decides who is allowed to the use the facility and what their responsibilities are; it is a self-defined group of users.
  • Public implies institutional or government run facilities. All Operation and Maintenance is assumed by the agency that operates the facility. Usually, only users who can pay for the service are permitted to use public facilities.

The technologies within the Functional Group ‘User Interface’ do not include a Management Level since maintenance is dependent on the subsequent technologies, and not simply on the User Interface. Of course the User Interfaces (toilets and urinals) themselves are relatively easy to maintain.