Sustainable Oil Palm Farming / Identifying noxious weeds

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Download: Module 3: Plantation Maintenance


Table 2: Common noxious weeds

Scientific name Common name Properties Found in Control
Woody weeds and shrubs:
Melastoma malabathricum
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Straights rhododendron Fast-growing flowering shrub, unpalatable for animals, dominant on P-deficient soils All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Clidemia hirta
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Soapbush Fast-growing flowering shrub, dominant on poor soils All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Mimosa pudica
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Mimosa Fast-growing flowering shrub, unpalatable, thorny All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Lantana camara
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Sage Fast-growing flowering shrub, toxic to livestock All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Chromolaena odorata
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Siam weed Fast-growing flowering shrub, toxic to livestock, allelopathic All plantations Uprooting / triclopyr
Ferns:
Dicranopteris linearis
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Climbing fern, shade-intolerant, unpalatable  Immature and young plantations
Stenochlaena palustris
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Midin / kalakai Climbing fern, thorny, unpalatable Glyphosate application
Nephrolepis spp.
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Slow-growing shade-tolerant fern Soft weed Slashing at knee height
Herbs and creeping vines:
Mikania spp.
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Bitter vine Fast-growing shade-intolerant perennial creeping herb; allelopathic; dominant on poorly drained and nutrient deficient soils; very palatable Noxious in stands < 5 years after planting. Beneficial as livestock feed. Grazing; mowing; uprooting; glyphosate application
Asystasia gangetica
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Chinese violet Shade-tolerant perennial herbaceous mat-forming creeper; stems up to 1 m tall; growing very vigorously with high nutrient demand; edible; very palatable and rich in crude protein Noxious if too dominant. Beneficial as livestock feed.
Grasses:
Imperata cylindrica
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Speargrass, alang-alang Medium shade-tolerant grass with sharp edges to blades; dominant on poor and acid soils; young shoots palatable Noxious during establishment and immature phase; unwanted in mature stands Spraying or wiping with glyphosate
Ischaemum muticum;
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Paspalum conjugatum

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Shade-tolerant perennial creeping grasses with shoots of maximum 60 cm height; competitive with oil palm; palatable; used as forage species Soft grasses Grazing, slashing at knee height

Acknowledgements

The material from Identifying noxious weeds is sourced from Smallholder Oil Palm Handbook and put together by Lotte Suzanne Woittiez (Wageningen Universit) and Haryono Sadikin, Sri Turhina, Hidayat Dani, Tri Purba Dukan, and Hans Smit (SNV) in August 2016. See Module 3: Plantation Maintenance for more information.

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