Aerated Pond

From Akvopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
English Français Español भारत മലയാളം தமிழ் 한국어 中國 Indonesia Japanese
Applicable in systems:
1, 6 , 7 , 8 , 9
Level of Application
Neighbourhood X
City XX


Blackwater, Greywater, Brownwater, Effluent

Level of management
Shared X
Public XX


Sludge, Effluent
Aerated pond.png

Icon aerated pond.png

An aerated pond is a large, mixed, aerobic reactor. Mechanical aerators provide oxygen and keep the aerobic organisms suspended and mixed with water to achieve a high rate of organic degradation.

Increased mixing and aeration from the mechanical units means that the ponds can be deeper and tolerate much higher organic loads than a maturation pond. The increased aeration allows for increased degradation and increased pathogen removal. As well, because oxygen is introduced by the mechanical units and not by light-driven photosynthesis, the ponds can function in more northern climates.

Design Considerations

Influent should be screened and pre-treated to remove garbage and coarse particles that could interfere with the aerators. Because the aeration units mix the pond, a subsequent settling tank is required to separate the effluent from the solids.

The pond should be built to a depth of 2 to 5 m and should have a detention time of 3 to 20 days, depending on the treatment target. To prevent leaching, the pond should have a liner. This can be made from clay, asphalt, compacted earth, or any other impervious material. A protective berm should be built around the pond, using the fill that is excavated, to protect it from runoff and erosion.

Advantages Disadvantages/limitations
- Resistant to organic and hydraulic shock loads

- High reduction of BOD and pathogens
- No real problems with insects or odours if designed and maintained correctly

- Requires a large land area

- High energy consumption, a constant source of electricity is required
- High capital and operating costs depending on the price of land and of electricity
- Requires operation and maintenance by skilled personnel
- Not all parts and materials may be locally available
- Requires expert design and construction
- Sludge and possibly effluent require further treatment and/or appropriate discharge


A mechanically aerated pond can efficiently handle concentrated influent and significantly reduce pathogen levels. It is especially important that electricity service is uninterrupted and that replacement parts are available to prevent extended downtimes that may cause the pond to turn anaerobic.

Aerated ponds can be used in both rural and peri-urban environments. They are most appropriate for regions with large areas of inexpensive land located away from homes and businesses. Aerated lagoons can function in a larger range of climates than Waste Stabilization Ponds (T.5) and the area requirement is smaller compared to a maturation pond.

Health Aspects/Acceptance

The pond is a large expanse of pathogenic wastewater; care must be taken to ensure that no one comes in contact with or goes into the water.


  • Arthur, J. P. (1983). Notes on the Design and Operation of Waste Stabilization Ponds in Warm Climates of Developing Countries. World Bank Technical Paper No. 7. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., US.
Available at: (Notes on applicability and effectiveness)
  • Crites, R. and Tchobanoglous, G. (1998). Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. WCB/McGraw- Hill, New York, US. pp. 527-558. (Comprehensive summary chapter)
  • Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F. L. and Stensel, H. D. (2004). Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy, 4th Ed. (Internat. Ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York, US. pp. 840-854. (Detailed design and example problems)


Eawag compendium cover.png

The material on this page was adapted from:

Elizabeth Tilley, Lukas Ulrich, Christoph Lüthi, Philippe Reymond and Christian Zurbrügg (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, published by Sandec, the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries of Eawag, the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.

The 2nd edition publication is available in English. French and Spanish are yet to come.