3.7 Strength and weakness of the Indonesian Spatial Planning
The basis for Indonesian spatial planning is the Planning Law 26/2007. This law has created a more transparent and accountable system of spatial planning compared to the previous decades. In most cases, the development of major projects is largely in line with the spatial plans, although spatial plans are often revised to fit the intended development.
Spatial plans in Indonesia aim to regulate land use and are often descriptive and consolidating in nature rather than setting out new ambitions. The National and Provincial Long-Term
Development Plans (RPJPN) and Medium-Term Development Plans (RPJMN) can be considered to be leading when it comes to the economic and spatial developments.
Although spatial plans contain all the modern sustainable principles and guiding rules, there is still a clear difference between the plans and reality.
Spatial planning in Indonesia is largely determined by either local authorities (regents, often for smaller projects) or by powerful ministries like BAPPENAS (for large projects). The ambiguous phrasing in spatial plans (and other regulations) is often used to give room to economic developments without too many restrictions. Economic development is still priority number one in Indonesia and spatial planning seems to facilitate this development, rather than regulate.
Another factor is the poor law enforcement allowing non-sustainable (industrial) development and operations and the gradual sprawling of urban areas.
This status of development planning and spatial planning is a reflection of the national, regional and local priorities: allowing fast and strong economic development without too many restrictions.
This is in contrast with the principles of ICZM, which aim to achieve a more balanced, sustain- able development. Merging the Indonesian socio-economic priorities with the ICZM principles is a major challenge as restrictions on businesses are quickly considered to be a major risk to the economic ambitions.
Acknowledgements[edit | edit source]
Victor Coenen (Witteveen+Bos), Susan Arts (TwynstraGudde, Jaap de Heer (TwynstraGudde), Mugy Grimwaldy (Bita Bina Semesta) and Henni Hendarti (Deltares), 30-9-2021
Final content report Integrated Coastal Zone Management for the Central Java Province